Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS for Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems), also known as Micro Machined Systems, Micro Machines or micro fabricated, refer to small-scale systems that use mechanical components, may also include electronic components. Those MEMS systems that use biological components or alter a biological variable are known as BIO-MEMS.
MEMS are devices manufactured on a micro scale in a batch process (integrated circuits and microstructures) that convert a mechanical or biological signal into an electrical one and vice versa. The figure shows an example of MEMS which is a gear system.
Escalation laws. Small is best? When and under what conditions?
• Manufacturing processes. These include Manufacturing Processes or microfabrication (surface and bulk) as well as encapsulation techniques.
• Materials. Knowledge of materials science, structure of materials and mechanics of materials in particular of the materials used in micro fabrication
• Micromechatronics. More than doing mechanical design, it knows how electronics and mechanics merge to accomplish a task efficiently, creating synergy with control.
Micromechatronics, which is the theoretical basis for the development of MEMS, has its origin in mechatronics. Mechatronics is not a new branch of engineering, but rather a recently developed concept that emphasizes the need for integration and intensive interaction between different areas of engineering. Based on the above, reference can be made to the definition of mechatronics proposed by stollschulte: “Mechatronics is the synergistic combination of precision mechanical engineering, electronics, automatic control and systems for the design of products and processes”. There are, of course, other versions of this definition, but this one clearly emphasizes that mechatronics is application and design driven.
At present, this new approach proposed by mechatronics has been taken to the area of microtechnologies. This has created a new discipline known as micromechatronics, which consists of the synergistic application of microelectronics, mechanics and information technologies to solve problems in a systemic way. Micromechatronics includes a set of necessary knowledge.
Knowledge areas for develop mechatronic systems
The areas of knowledge required for conventional mechatronic systems and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) are knowledge of classical mechanics and electromagnetic theory; for this reason they are “easier” to access for engineers; however, for the development of mechatronic systems using NEMS technology (Nano Electro Mechanical Systems) it is necessary to change paradigms and study quantum mechanics and nano electro mechanics.
The separation of the world of microelectronics and mechanics has disappeared due to the evolution of microelectronics technologies and the application of mathematical techniques based on energy, which allows the analysis of systems that integrate microelectronic and micromechanical components under a single paradigm (micromechatronics) and single package (CHIP). A micromachine is the clear example of this mix with the difference that the effects of gravity are minimized compared to conventional machines.
Because Si can be molded into the required device using traditional processes in IC production such as: photolithography, ion diffusion and implantation, thin film deposition, anisotropic etching, selective anodizing (includes Si pore formation). Si molding can be used as a template for the formation of microstructures in other materials such as: metals, ceramics, plastics, etc. These non-siliceous materials can be processed directly using photolithography, excimer lasers, or ion beams. Using these techniques, it is possible to design microstructures, which include: diaphragms, beams, gears, fluid control components such as nozzles, ducts, among others. The processed Si wafers can be bonded together by fusion welding or bonded to glass wafers using anodic welding techniques to make more complex devices and provide first-order assemblies. The wafers can be processed in batches, allowing them to be manufactured in the tens of thousands at low cost.
Tips for Finding the Best Laptop for Your Business
It is all too easy to click on the best-selling laptop pushed into your lap by retailers, but is that going to be the best fit for your business? To truly synchronise your needs with your tech device, you have to understand what you are buying, especially when it concerns something as important as your company. You don’t have to own a degree in computing to be able to discern what boxes to tick in your business laptop search and this guide details what you should be looking for.
What Do You Need the Laptop For?
Are you the admin brain behind your company, sending emails to clients and creating invoices or work regimes? Or does your career take you down a creative path, such as media design or geographical planning activities? Whatever the answer, the laptop you pick has to reflect those needs. A GIS supportive device will ensure that any GIS software is fully supported, or a laptop with a stronger GPU will ensure that graphics rendering is never a hindrance. These types of roles have a higher demand for a stronger CPU than a lesser demanding role functionality wise, for example, if you do lots of report writing.
Simply put, if you need your laptop to perform basic tasks such as typing, reading, or similar, then things like CPU, RAM, GPU, and even GIS will not be as important. However, if you are creating graphics, and work with media files or GIS software, there is an elevated need for a more technical laptop that can keep up with the complex jobs too.
Shopping for Your Budget
There are three ranges of laptops, low-budget, mid-range, and high-end models. Ideally, because of the purpose of this purchase, low-end models should be overlooked wherever possible. Starting at mid-range laptops means committing to a price of at least $350 and upwards, whereas the high-end models market at $600 and rising. The money you put into this asset should be seen as an investment, with the return being the profits from the work tasks carried out at the helm. For a deeper look at what a good price range can get you, check out these Lenovo Small Business Laptops and see how the specs hold up to the price tag.
What is a Good Business CPU?
The Central Processing Unit is the power behind the device. Which CPU you need depends on what you do with your device. If, say, a typical workday entails having multiple browser windows open simultaneously alongside complex software and an open inbox, your CPU demands immediately shoot up. If you spend the day typing up documents and sending sporadic emails, the CPU can stay put at the lower end. Most business owners will benefit from a Core i3 or i5, but the i7 is there for those needing an extra boost. The higher the CPU, the higher the price in most cases, but this is where it is worth putting your money.
Where Will You Use the Laptop?
If you work at home, the laptop you buy won’t need to be geared towards portability or ruggedness. However, people who travel to an office every day, or worksites, or take their work all over the world with them, need something sturdier. It is possible to find a lightweight laptop that is still rugged and therefore supports portability.
Which Design Suits Your Needs?
Business laptops come in a whole manner of designs, including standard, and hybrid models. Touchscreen laptops are becoming more popular than ever before, largely owing to their multi-faceted opportunities and flexible usage allowances. They can be used as a tablet, or laptop in the same sitting and have been a real innovation in the world of business. Traditional models still have a lot to offer and tend to be more rugged generally, but lots of business owners prefer the versatility of the hybrid models.
Your business needs the best supporting tools so it can perform to its optimum capacity. The laptop product is one of the biggest decisions to be made whether that is as you are starting out or a replacement device down the road. Consider all your options and remember to siphon out what is relevant and what can be pushed to the side.
How To Choose The Best Wireless Headphones for Running
Every sports fanatic is always in search of the best set of wireless earphones. When wireless headphones or the earphones were first launched many people got curious whether they would work for running or going to the gym or not. With time, they’ve started to be considered as the best airpods for running and outdoor activities.
The below factors will help you in selecting the Best Earbuds for Running, gym, and other outdoor activities.
The main factor that runners want in the wireless earbuds is comfort. As a runner, you would always want something in your ear which feels secure without being afraid that they will fall out.
The earbuds provide a fit that can be personalized to make sure your ears are comfortable with the device. It all is provided by the different silicon ear tips. They have all sizes like small, medium and large. Just make sure that you’ve selected the right sized silicon ear tips.
The battery life ought to last about 4 to 5 hours on a single charge. If you use good quality earbuds for talking it uses less battery and it takes more if you use them for listening to non-stop music. On the other hand, charging case has a battery life of more than 24 hours on standby.
The wireless earphones also convey warning sounds when the power is about to run out. You can depend on a single charge. But in a situation like a marathon, you might have to recharge it, by carrying your charging case along with you.
The best feature of the earbuds is its noise canceling feature. With the click of a single button you can cancel excess noise or switch back to the transparency mode to allow the outside noise come through. This feature is the best for working out and while on a plane etc.
By blocking the outside noise, you can listen to your favorite podcast and by transparency mode you can hear your surroundings to be fully aware of everything.
The wireless earbuds stay in while running which is the best feature. They can stay in as long as two hours while running or at the gym. Earbuds have to be put back in constantly but this is not the case with them. The sturdy silicon tips help a lot to keep them in place. They fit in even if you sweat.
The earbuds are wireless and they only need Bluetooth to connect to your phone, this means no more struggling for cords!! You can switch to noise canceling mode, transparency mode, you can switch to calls and songs with the click of a button. This is very good for runners as they won’t have to struggle for their cords getting tangled anymore.
All these above-mentioned factors need to be kept into consideration when it comes to choosing earbuds such as the AirBuds pro. However, if you think that you are better off with the wired ones, you can always choose them.
Best Gaming 144Hz Laptops in 2022
The gaming laptop market has exploded in recent years, and it shows no signs of slowing down. New releases are coming out on a weekly basis as manufacturers compete for your attention and your wallet. The first thing to look at when buying a gaming laptop is the hardware inside. This is what determines how well the laptop performs, how long it’ll last, and how much it’ll cost to run. The choice of screen refresh rate is largely dependent on the components of a PC such as the GPU and the CPU. Generally, a refresh rate of 60 Hz is considered the Holy Grail for laptop displays. But for modern-day gaming and content consumption, 144Hz is quickly becoming the new standard.
If you are a creative professional or a passionate gamer, you must have heard the terms FPS (frame rate per second), response time, and screen refresh rate. New buyers are often more fixated on the GPU and the processor but ignore the importance of a smooth screen display which has a great impact on the gaming experience. High refresh-rate gameplay is one of those things you have to experience firsthand to truly appreciate. Visuals are buttery smooth and controls feel more responsive when playing at 90 or 120fps, and the benefits only increase the higher the frame count goes. But in order to achieve such high frame rates, you need the right hardware, including a high refresh-rate display and a graphics card and processor fast enough to handle the task. Gamers don’t just want a powerful processor, they want a powerful processor backed up by equally powerful memory.
One may assume high FPS gaming is strictly for the most expensive PCs, but there are numerous gaming laptops that feature 144Hz displays and hardware strong enough to take advantage of the high refresh rates. We’ve hand-picked five of the best options available right now. We’ve got 14-, 15-, and 17-inch models ranging in price and power to suit your 144Hz gaming needs. Just remember that, like with pre-built PCs, laptops often come in a variety of hardware options, so if you like the look of one of the selections below but need something stronger, or even something cheaper, take a moment to see the best 144Hz Laptop Models. Gaming laptops are notoriously bulky. Even 14-inch models can be thick, heavy machines. The larger chassis makes sense given the power these devices need to run, but the point of a laptop for many people is to have a compact, portable computer.
A great gaming laptop is more than just a device with high-end specs and a flashy design. It needs to have the performance to back up that look and feel, so you can enjoy your gaming sessions without fear of being stuck on loading screens or lagging behind. And while you can obviously get a good gaming laptop no matter what brand or price range you’re comfortable with, Asus has you covered if you’re looking for something extra special. Their ROG Strix series is designed from the ground up specifically for gamers and it shows. We Find the best 144Hz laptop Models that you can buy in 2022. But before getting into it, let us briefly explain the importance of screen refresh rate.
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